A Country Defeated in Victory -- Part II
I have found additional irrefutable facts that confirm the information in A Country Defeated in Victory - Part I, wherein I stated that a few power hungry Jews were the controlling influence behind the banks, but I did not qualify this statement. Because this is a important part of A Country Defeated in Victory - Part I, I am going to take this opportunity to further clarify what I meant.
All this is basic, but most people don't make the distinction because the Hebrew people are called Jews. Just like you might call an Irishman Catholic, the word Jew describes a religion as does the word Catholic. Jesus made a distinction between Hebrews like Himself who were also known as Jews, and those that called themselves Jews and were not Hebrews. Jesus called these Jews "Satan's seed". The Jews Jesus was pointing out were Satan's spiritual children. These are a group of people that wish to carry out Satan's will. They are responsible for killing the prophets of God and Jesus Christ.
The Jews I referred to in A Country Defeated in Victory - Part I are not servant's of God Almighty. How do you tell the difference between these men who claim to be Jews but are really Satan's seed? There are only two ways that I see in the Word of God, one is by being able to see these persons true spirit by the gift of spiritual discernment and the other is to gauge their true spiritual nature by their fruits (actions). I hope this explanation will clear up any mis-interpretation of what I said, when referring to some Jews that are not servants of God Almighty, and call themselves Jews. This is rather confusing because both groups go by the same name and claim the same roots, but Jesus made this distinction, so must I.
One of the reasons these men hated Jesus was because He made this distinction and exposed them. The information that follows will trouble you greatly, because it will confirm the truth of this paper and A Country Defeated in Victory - Part I. You will be forced to accept the fact that the United States government and the media have kept this information from you. The information contained in this paper was taken out of actual government documents that cannot be rebutted. I'm going to lay this information out in such a way, as to try and make it easer to understand, and hopefully cause you to accept the truth. This information is rather laborious to read, but if you seek the truth you will take the time to study this information. So I offer this suggestion. If you find your mind starting to wander, stop reading until you are rested. The following was taken from a book entitled `Vindication', on pages 168-179, written by Judge Rutherford and appeared in a St. Louis Mo. newspaper in the 1890's:
Rothschild Brothers, Bankers,
London, June 25th, 1863
Messrs. Ikleheimer, Morton, and Vandergould,
No. 3 Wall St.,
New York, U.S.A.
A Mr. John Sherman has written us from a town in Ohio, U.S.A., as to the profits that may be made in the National Banking business under a recent act of your Congress, a copy of which act accompanied his letter. Apparently this act has been drawn upon the plan formulated here last summer by the British Bankers Association and by the Association RECOMMENDED TO OUR AMERICAN FRIENDS as one that if enacted into law, would prove highly profitable to the banking fraternity throughout the world.
Mr. Sherman declares that there has never been such an opportunity for capitalists to accumulate money, as that presented by this act, and that the old plan of State Banks is so unpopular, that the new scheme will, by contrast, be most favorably regarded, notwithstanding the fact that it gives the National Banks an almost absolute control of the National finance. `THE FEW WHO CAN UNDERSTAND THE SYSTEM,' HE SAYS, `WILL EITHER BE SO INTERESTED IN ITS PROFITS, OR SO DEPENDENT OF ITS FAVORS THAT THERE WILL BE NO OPPOSITION FROM THAT CLASS, WHILE ON THE OTHER HAND, THE GREAT BODY OF PEOPLE, MENTALLY INCAPABLE OF COMPREHENDING THE TREMENDOUS ADVANTAGES THAT CAPITAL DERIVES FROM THE SYSTEM, WILL BEAR ITS BURDENS WITHOUT COMPLAINT AND PERHAPS WITHOUT EVEN SUSPECTING THAT THE SYSTEM IS INIMICAL TO THEIR INTERESTS.'
Please advise fully as to this matter and also state whether or not you will be of assistance to us, if we conclude to establish a National Bank in the City of New York. If you are acquainted with Mr. Sherman we will be glad to know something of him. If we avail ourselves of the information he furnished, we will, of course, make DUE COMPENSATION." (emphasis mine)
"Awaiting your reply, we are "
Your respectful servants,
[Mr. Sherman was a member of Congress from 1860-1890, he was responsible for almost all banking legislation that was passed during that time.]
"New York City, July 6, 1863.
"Messrs. Rothschild Brothers
We beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of June 25th, in which you refer to a communication received from the Hon. John Sherman of Ohio, with reference to the advantages and profits of an American investment under the provisions of our National Banking Act.
"The fact that Mr. Sherman speaks well of such an investment or of any similar one, is certainly not without weight, for that gentleman possesses in a marked degree, the distinguishing characteristics of the successful financier. His temperament is such that whatever his feelings may be they never cause him to lose sight of the MAIN CHANCE. He is young, shrewd, and ambitious. He has fixed his eyes upon the Presidency of the United States and is already a member of Congress. He rightfully thinks he has everything to gain both politically and financially by being friendly with men and institutions having large financial resources, and which at times, are not too particular in their methods, either of obtaining government aid, or of protecting themselves against unfriendly legislation. We trust him here implicitly. His intellect and ambition combine to make him exceedingly valuable to us, indeed, we predict that if his life is spared, he will prove to be the best friend the moneyed interests of the world have ever had in America.
"As to the organization of a National Bank here, and the nature and profits of such an investment, we beg leave to refer to our printed circular enclosed herein. Inquiries by European Capitalists, concerning this matter, have been so numerous, that for convenience, we have had our views with regard to it put into printed form. "Should you determine to organize a bank in the City, we shall be glad to aid you. We can easily find financial friends to make satisfactory directory, and to fill official positions not taken up by the personal representatives you will send over.
"Your most obedient servants,
"IKLEHEIMER, MORTON, AND VANDERGOULD."
"BANKERS PRINTED CIRCULAR"
"IKLEHEIMER, MORTON, AND VANDERGOULD
"Private Bankers, Brokers, Financial Agents, etc. "
3 Wall Street, New York City
"We have had so many inquiries of late as to the method of organizing national banks under the recent act of Congress, and as to the profits that may reasonably be expected from such an investment, that we have thought it best to issue this brief circular as an answer to all questions of our friends and clients:
"1-Any number of persons, not less than five, may organize a national banking corporation. "
2--Except in cities having 6,000 inhabitants or less, a national bank can not have less than $1,000,000 capital. "
3--They are private corporations organized for private gain, and select their own officers and employees. "
4--They are not subject to the control of the state laws, except as congress may from time to time provide. "
5--They can receive deposits and loan the same for their own benefit. "
6--They can buy and sell bonds, and discount paper and do a general banking business. "
7--To start a national bank on the scale of $1,000,000 will require the purchase of that amount (par value) of U.S. Government bonds. "
8--U.S. Government bonds can now be purchased at 50 per cent discount, so that a bank of $1,000,000 capital can be started at this time with only $500,000. "
9--These bonds must be deposited with the U.S. Treasury at Washington as security for the national Bank currency, that on the making of the deposit will be furnished by the government to the bank. "
10-The U.S. Government will pay 6% interest on the bonds, in gold, the interest being paid semi-annually. It will be seen that at the present price bonds, the interest paid by the government itself, will of itself amount 12 per cent in gold, on all the money invested. "
11-The U.S. Government, under the provisions of the national banking act, on having the bonds aforesaid deposited with its treasurer, will on the strength of such security, furnish national currency to the bank depositing the bonds, at an annual interest of only ONE per cent per annum. Thus the deposit of $1,000,000 will secure the issue of $900,000 in currency. "
12-This currency is printed by the U.S. Government in a form so like greenback money, that many people do not detect the difference, although the currency is but a promise of the bank to pay -- that is, it is the bank's demand note, and must be signed by the Bank's president before it can be used. "
13-The demand for money is so great that this currency can be readily loaned to the people across the counter of the bank at a discount at the rate of 10 per cent at 30 days' to 60 days' time, making it about 12 per cent interest on the currency.
"14-The interest on the bonds, plus the interest on the currency which the bonds secure, plus incidentals of the business ought to make the gross earnings of the bank amount to from 28 to 33 1/3 per cent. The amount of the dividends that may be declared will depend largely upon the salaries of the officers that the banks vote premises occupied by the bank as a place of business. In case it is thought best that the showing of profits should not appear too large, the now common plan of having the directors buy the bank building and then raising the rent and salary of the president and cashier may be adopted.
"15-National banks are privileged to either increase or contract their circulation at will, and, of course, can grant or withhold loans as they may see fit. As the banks have a national organization, and can easily act together in withholding loans or extending them, it follows that they can by united action in refusing to make loans, cause a stringency in the money market and in a single week or even in a single day cause a decline in all the products of the country. The tremendous possibilities of speculation involved in this control of the money of a country like the United States will be at once understood by all bankers.
"16-National banks pay no taxes on their bonds, nor on their capital, nor on their deposits. This exemption from taxation is based on the theory that the capital of these banks is invested in U.S. securities, and is a remarkable permission of the law.
"17-The secretary may deposit the public money with any bank at will, and to any amount. In the suit of Mr. Branch against the United States, reported in the 12th volume of the U.S. Court of Claims, Reports on Page 287, it was decided that such `Government deposits are rightfully mingled with other funds of the bank, and are loaned or otherwise employed in the ordinary business of the bank, and the bank becomes the debtor of the United States as it does to other depositors.'"Requesting that you will regard this as strictly confidential and soliciting any favors in our line that you may have to extend, we are,
"Most respectfully yours,
"IKLESHIEMER, MORTON, & VANDERGOULD."
The following is a speech given by Senator Daniel of Virginia, May 22, 1890, in Congress, and to be found in the Congressional Record, page 5128, of that date. He said: "I take from the Bankers Magazine of August, 1873, a little extract. It says, `In 1872 silver being demonetized in Germany, England, and Holland, a capital of 100,000 pounds ($500,000.00) was raised Ernest Seyd was sent to this country with this fund as agent for foreign bond holders to effect the same object (demonetization of silver)'."
To further prove Senator Daniel's statement is correct, here is part of a sworn affidavit made by Mr. Frederick A. Luckenbach and acknowledged before Mr. James A. Miller, Clerk of the Supreme Court of the State of Colorado. The affidavit follows:-
"`State of Colorado
"`County of Arapahoe "`
* * * In 1865, I visited London, England, for the purpose of placing there Pennsylvania oil properties, in which I was interested. I took with me letters of introduction to many gentlemen in London, among them one to Mr. Ernest Seyd from Robert M. Foust, ex-treasurer of Philadelphia. I became well acquainted with Mr. Ernest Seyd, and with his brother, Richard Seyd, who, I understand is still living. I visited London thereafter, every year, and at each visit renewed my acquaintance with Mr. Seyd, and upon each occasion became his quest at one or more times--joining his family at dinner or other meals.
"`In February, 1874, while on one of these visits, and while his quest for dinner, I, among other things, alluded to rumors of parliamentary corruption, and expressed astonishment that such corruption existed. In reply to this, he told me that he could relate facts about corruption of the American Congress that would place it far ahead of the English Parliament in that line. So far, the conversation was at the dinner table between us. His brother, Richard, and others were there also, but this was table talk between Mr. Ernest Seyd and myself. After dinner ended, he invited me into another room, where he resumed the conversation about legislative corruption. He said, "If you will pledge me your honor as a gentleman not to divulge what I am about to tell you while I live, I will convince you that what I said about American Congress is true." I gave him the promise and then he continued: "I went to America in the winter of 1872-3, authorized to secure, if I could, the passage of a bill demonetizing silver. It was in the interest of those I represented--the GOVERNORS OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND--to have it done. I took with me 100,000 pounds sterling (500,000.00 United States money) with instructions that if it was not sufficient to accomplish the object to draw for another 100,000 pounds or as much more as was necessary." He told me that the German bankers were also interested in having it accomplished. He said" "I saw the committees of the House and Senate and paid the money and stayed in America until I knew the measure was safe." * * *
"`(Signed) James A. Miller
"`(Seal) Clerk Supreme Court,
"`State of Colorado.'"
"The Congressional Record, of the 44th Congress, first session, volume 4, part 6, Appendix, page 197, Joseph Cannon said: "This legislation was had in the forty-second Congress, February 12, 1873, by a bill to regulate the mints of the United States, and practically abolish silver as money by failing to provide for the coinage of the silver dollar. It was not discussed, as shown by the Record, and neither members of Congress nor the people understood the scope of the legislation."
"The Congressional Record, of the 44th Congress, first session, volume 4, part 6, Appendix, page 193, Mr Holman of Indiana, said: "I have before me the record of the proceedings of this House on the passage through this House was a `colossal swindle.' I assert that the measure never had the sanction of this House, and does not possess the moral force of law."
"The Congressional Record, July 13, 1876, volume 4, part 5, page 4560, Mr. Burchard of Illinois said: "The Coinage Act of 1873 unaccompanied by any written report upon the subject from any committee, and unknown to the members of Congress who, without opposition allowed it to pass under the belief, if not assurance, that it made no alteration in the value of the current coins, or changed the unit of value from silver to gold."
Senator Voorhees of Indiana, Congressional Record, January 15, 1876, page 332, declared: "The silver dollar is peculiarly the laboring man's dollar as far as he may desire specie * * * throughout all financial panics that have assailed this country, no man has been bold enough to raise his hand to strike it down; no man has ever dared to whisper of a contemplated assault upon it and when dared to whisper of a contemplated assault upon it an when the 12th day of February, 1873, approached the day of doom to the American dollar of our fathers, how silent was the work of the enemy. * * * Its enactment there was as completely unknown to the people and indeed to four-fifths of Congress itself as the presence of a burglar in a house at midnight to its sleeping inmates."
The Congressional Record, volume 7, part 1, second session, 45 Congress, page 584, reveals that Mr. Bright of Tennessee said: "It (the bill demonetizing silver) passed by fraud in the House, never having been printed in advance, being a substitute for the printed bill; never having been read at the Clerk's desk, the reading having been dispensed with by an impression that the bill made no material alteration in the coinage laws; it was passed without discussion, being cut off by operation of the previous question. It was passed, to my certain information under such circumstances that the fraud escaped the attention of the most watchful as well as the ablest statesmen in Congress at the time. * * * Aye, sir, it was a fraud that smells to heaven."
The following is an extract from Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh Sr's. book `Banking and Currency and The Money Trust', the father of "Lindy" Lindbergh. He says: "When the Aldrich-Vreeland Emergency Bill was sprung in the House in its finished draft and ready for action to be taken, the debate was limited to three hours and Banker Vreeland placed in charge. It took so long for copies of the Bill to be gotten that many members were unable to secure a copy until a few minutes of the time to vote. No member who wished to present the people's side of the case was given sufficient time to enable him to properly analyze the Bill, I asked for time and was told that if I would vote for the Bill, it would be given me, but not otherwise. Others were treated in the same way. "Accordingly on June 20, 1908, the Money Trust won the first fight and the Aldrich-Vreeland Emergency Currency Law was placed on the statute books. Thus was the first precedent established for the people's guarantee of the rich man's watered securities, by making them a basis on which to issue currency. It was the entering wedge. We had already guaranteed the rich man's money, now by this Act, the way was opened, and it was intended that we should guarantee their watered stocks and bonds. Of course, they were too keen to attempt to complete it in a single act, such an enormous steal as it would have been if they had included all they hoped ultimately to secure. They knew that they would be caught at it if they did, and so it was planned that the whole thing should be done by a succession of Acts. The first three have taken place.
"Act No. 1 was the manufacture, between 1896-1907, through stock gambling, speculation, and other devious methods and devices of tens of billions of watered stocks, bonds, and securities.
"Act No. 2 was the panic of 1907, by which method those not favorable to the money trust could be squeezed out of business and the people frightened into demanding changes in the banking and currency laws which the Money Trust would frame.
"The Act No. 3 was the passage of the Aldrich-Vreeland Emergency Currency Bill by which the money trust's interests would have the privilege of securing from the Government currency on their watered stocks and securities. But while the Act contained no authority to change the form of the Bank notes, the U. S. Treasurer (in some way that I have been unable to find reason for) implied authority and changed the form of bank notes which were issued for the banks on Government bonds. These notes had hitherto printed on them, `This note is secured by bonds of the United States.' He changed it to read as follows: `This note is secured by bonds of the United States and other securities.' `Or other securities' is the addition that was secured by special interests.
"The main thing, however, that the Money Trust accomplished as a result of the passing of this Act was the appointment of the National Monetary Commission, the membership of which was chiefly made up of bankers, agents, and attorneys, who have generally been educated in favor of, and to have a community interest with Money Trust. The National Monetary Commission was placed in charge of the same Senator Nelson W. Aldrich and Congressman Edward B. Vreeland, who respectively had charge in the Senate and House during the Act creating it.
"The Act authorized this commission to spend money without stint or account. It spent over $300,000.00 in order to learn how to form a plan by which to create a greater money trust, and it afterwards recommended to Congress to give this proposed trust a fifty year charter by means of which it could rob all humanity. A bill for this purpose was introduced by members of the Monetary Commission and its passage planed to be the forth and final act of the campaign to completely enslave the people.
"The fourth act, however, is in incubation only, and it is hoped by that time, we realize the danger that all of us are now in, for it is the final proposed legislation which, if it succeeds, will have us in the complete control of the moneyed interests. History records nothing so dramatic in design, nor so skillfully manipulated, as this attempt to create the National Reserve Association (`Federal Reserve System' *emphasis mine) otherwise called the Aldrich plan-and no fact or occurrence contemplated for the gaining of selfish ends is recorded in the world's records which equal the beguiling methods of this colossal undertaking. Men, women, and children have been equally unconscious of how stealthily this greatest of all giant octopuses-a greater Money Trust is reaching out its tentacles in its efforts to bind all humanity in perpetual servitude to the greedy will of this monster.
"I was in Congress when the panic of 1907 occurred, but I had previously familiarized myself with many of the ways of high financiers. As a result of what I discovered in that study, I set about to expose the Money Trust, the world's greatest financial giant. I knew that I could not succeed unless I could bring the public sentiment to my aid. I had to secure this or fail. The money trust had laid its plans long before and was already executing them. It was then, and still is TRAINING THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES, TO DEMAND THE ENACTMENT OF THE ALDRICH PLAN OR A BILL SIMILAR IN EFFECT. Hundreds of thousands of dollars had already been spent and millions more reserved to be used in the attempt to bring about a condition of public mind that would cause demand of the passage of the bill. If no other methods succeeded, it was planned to bring on a violent panic and rush the bill through during the distress which should result from the panic. It was figured that the people would demand new banking and currency laws; that it would be impossible for them to get a definitely practical plan before Congress when they were in an excited state and that as a result, the Aldrich Plan would slip safely through. It was planned to pass that bill in the fall of 1911 or 1912."
The United States government turned the control over its banking and monetary policy making over to the "Federal Reserve Board" December 23, 1913. Things seemed to be going well, the country was in a financial and industrial boom, remember the phrase, "the roaring twenties". The 1920's however proved to be the death of this country. There were many improprieties caused by the banking cartel. You will find proof of that in this paper. The crash of the stock market took place in 1929 and then in 1933 the confiscation of the rest of this country's gold and all property in America took place.
The following Resolution was written by Eugene Meyers and the New York Bankers it was given to President Hoover at 10.00 pm. March 3, 1933. Resolution Adopted by the Federal Reserve Board of New York
WHEREAS, In the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the continued and increasing withdrawal of currency and gold from the banks of the country has now created a national emergency,
and WHEREAS, It is understood the adequate remedial measures cannot be enacted before tomorrow morning,
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, That in this emergency the Federal Reserve Board is hereby requested to urge the President of the United States to declare a bank holiday Saturday, March 4, and Monday, March 6, in order to afford opportunity to governmental authorities and banks themselves to take such measures as may be necessary to protect the interests of the people and promptly to provide adequate banking and credit facilities for all parts of the country.
Proposed Executive Order
WHEREAS the nation's banking institution's are being subjected to heavy withdrawals of currency for hoarding; and
WHEREAS there is increasing speculative activity in foreign exchanges; and
WHEREAS these conditions have created a national emergency in which it is in the best interest of all bank depositors that a period of respite be provided with a view to preventing further hoarding of coin, bullion or currency or speculation in foreign exchange, and permitting the application of appropriate measures for dealing with the emergency in order to protect the interests of all the people; and
WHEREAS it is provided in Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, that "The President may investigate, regulate, or prohibit, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, by means of licenses or otherwise, any transactions in foreign exchange and the export, hoarding, melting, or earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency * * *"; and
WHEREAS it is provided in Section 16 of the said Act that "Whoever shall willfully violate any of the provisions of this Act or of any license, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, and whoever shall willfully violate, neglect, or refuse to comply with any order of the President issued in compliance with the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both * * *";
NOW, THEREFORE, pursuant to the authority granted by said Act, I hereby order, direct and declare that:
1. From Saturday, the fourth day of March, to Tuesday, the Seventh day of March, Nineteen Hundred and Thirty Three, both dates inclusive, there shall be maintained and observed throughout the United States of America a bank holiday for all of the purposes hereinafter set forth;
2. During said holiday, no banking institution as hereinafter defined shall pay out, export, earmark, or permit the withdrawal or transfer in any manner or by any device whatsoever of any gold or silver coin or bullion or currency or take any other action which might facilitate the hoarding thereof; nor shall any such banking institution pay out deposits, make loans or discounts, deal in foreign exchange, or transact any other banking business whatsoever.
3. Upon the expiration of said holiday and until otherwise ordered by the President of the United States, such banking institutions may pay out, export, earmark or permit the withdrawal or transfer of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency, or deal in foreign exchange to extent as may be permitted by license or otherwise under regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury with the approval of the President.
4. The Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President, is authorized and empowered to prescribe such regulations as he may find necessary to carry out the purposes of the order.
5. The term "banking institution" as herein used shall include all Federal reserve banks, national banking associations, banks trust companies, savings banks, building and loan associations, credit unions, or other corporations, partnerships, associations or persons engaged in the business of receiving deposits, making loans, discounting business paper, or transacting any other form of banking business.
The White House
The following is a letter sent by President Hoover to Eugene Meyer:
My dear Governor Meyer:
I received at half past one this morning your letter dated March 3rd. I must assume that this letter was written on the basis of information received by you prior to 11:30 o'clock last night for the reason that before your letter was sent you had certain information as follows:
a. At 11 o'clock last night the President elect had informed me he did not wish such a proclamation issued.
b. The Attorney General had renewed the same opinion which he had already given to the Board that the authorities on which you were relying were inadequate unless supported by the incoming Administration.
c. That groups of representative bankers in both Chicago and New York, embracing members of the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Banks in those cities, were then in conference with the governors of the states of Illinois and New York, and that the governors of these two states were prepared to act if these representative groups so recommended. It appears that the governors did take action under their authorities, declaring a temporary holiday in these two critical states, and thus accomplishing the major purposes which the Board apparently had in mind.
In view of the above I am at a loss to understand why such a communication should have been sent to me in the last few hours of this Administration, which I believe the Board must now admit was neither justified nor necessary.
Yours faithfully, Herbert Hoover
[Hon. Eugene Meyer, Federal Reserve Board, Washington, D.C.]
In the above letter President Hoover said that President elect Roosevelt said (11:00 pm March 3 1933) that he didn't see the necessity or urgency in issuing a proclamation concerning the supposed national emergency. What happened for President Roosevelt to make a radical 360 turn in his convictions just a few hours later.
The following is an excerpt from his Inaugural Address: "I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that a stricken Nation in the midst of a stricken world may require. These measures, or such other measures as the Congress may build out of its experience and wisdom, I shall seek, within my constitutional authority, to bring to speedy adoption. But in the event that the Congress shall fail to take one of these two courses, and in the event that the national emergency is still critical, I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis-broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe."
The day after President Roosevelt's inauguration he issued proclamations in behalf of the Bankers. These acts were treason against the American people. President Roosevelt used a bold faced lie as to the reason and necessity for his actions. He said that this had to be done because of the hording of gold and silver being done by the American people. Most of the gold was stolen and removed from this country by the big New York Bankers. The Congressional record makes this fact clear.
PROCLAMATIONS [CONVENING THE CONGRESS IN EXTRA SESSION]
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WHEREAS public interests require that the Congress of the United States should be convened in extra session at twelve o'clock, noon, on the Ninth day of March, 1933, to receive such communication as may be made by the Executive;
NOW, Therefore, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim and declare that an extraordinary occasion requires the Congress of the United States to convene in extra session at the Capitol in the City of Washington on the Ninth day of March, 1933, at twelve o'clock, noon, of which all persons who shall at that time be entitled to act as members thereof are hereby required to take notice.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I hereunto set my hand and caused to be affixed the great seal of the United States.
DONE at the City of Washington this Fifth day of March, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirty-three, and [seal] of the Independence of the United States the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
By the President;
Secretary of State.
This is a letter from President Roosevelt that was sent to the Congress describing the National Emergency. The first paragraph tells Congress that we are bankrupt. He doesn't use the word bankrupt, but this is obvious by the last sentence and further documentation in this paper.
A message from the President
On March 3 banking operations in the United States ceased. To review at this time the causes of this failure of our banking system is unnecessary. Suffice it to say that the Government has been compelled to step in for the protection of depositors and the business of the Nation.
Our first task is to reopen all sound banks. This is an essential preliminary to subsequent legislation directed against speculation with the funds of depositors and other violations of positions of trust.
In order that the first objective--the opening of banks for the resumption of business--may be accomplished, I ask of the Congress the immediate enactment of legislation giving to the executive branch of the Government control over banks for the protection of depositors; authority forthwith to open such banks as have already been ascertained to be in sound condition, and other such banks, as rapidly as possible; and authority to reorganize and reopen such banks as may be found to require reorganization to put them on a sound basis.
[*note-here he asks for special power for the executive branch. Who's he talking about? He's talking about the office of the President and the Treasury. Why? Because in bankruptcy, protection is provided for the debtors, you'll see later that you are the debtor.]
I ask amendments to the Federal Reserve Act to provide for such additional currency, adequately secured, as it may become necessary to issue to meet all demands for currency and at the same time to achieve this end without increasing the unsecured indebtedness of the Government of the United States.
I cannot too strongly urge upon the Congress the clear necessity for immediate action. A continuation of the strangulation of banking facilities is unthinkable. The passage of the proposed legislation will end this condition and, I trust, within a short space of time will result in a resumption of business activities.
In addition, it is my belief that this legislation will not only lift immediately all unwarranted doubts and suspicions in regard to banks which are 100 percent sound but will also mark the beginning of a new relationship between the banks and the people of the country.
The Members of the new Congress will realize, I am confident, the grave responsibility which lies upon me and upon them. In the short space of 5 days it is impossible for us to formulate completed measures to prevent the recurrence of the evils of the past. This does not and should not, however, justify any delay in accomplishing this first step.
At an early moment I shall request of the Congress two other measures which I regard as of immediate urgency. With action taken thereon we can proceed to the consideration of a rounded program of national restoration
Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The White House,
March 9, 1933
[BANK HOLIDAY, MARCH 6-9, 1933, INCLUSIVE]
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WHEREAS there have been heavy and unwarranted withdrawals of gold and currency from our banking institutions for the purpose of hoarding; and
WHEREAS continuous and increasingly extensive speculative activity abroad in foreign exchange has resulted in severe drains on the Nation's stocks of gold; and
WHEREAS these conditions have created a national emergency; and
WHEREAS it is in the best interests of all bank depositors that a period of respite be provided with a view to preventing further hoarding of coin, bullion or currency or speculation in foreign exchange and permitting the application of appropriate measures to protect the interests of our people; and
WHEREAS it is provided in Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, (40 stat. L. 411) as amended, "That the President may investigate, regulate, or prohibit, under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, by means of licenses or otherwise, any transactions in foreign exchange and the export, hoarding, melting, or earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency * * * "; and
WHEREAS it is provided in Section 16 of the said Act "that whoever shall willfully violate any of the provisions of this Act or of any license, rule, or regulation issued thereunder, and whoever shall willfully violate, neglect, or refuse to comply with any order of the President issued in compliance with the provisions of this Act, shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, imprisoned for not more than ten years, or both; * * * ";
NOW THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, in view of such national emergency and by virtue of the authority vested in me by said Act and in order to prevent the export, hoarding, or earmarking of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency, do hereby proclaim, order, direct and declare that from Monday, the sixth day of March, to Thursday, the ninth day of March, Nineteen Hundred and Thirty Three, both dates inclusive, there shall be maintained and observed by all banking institutions and all branches thereof located in the United States of America, including the territories and insular possessions, a bank holiday, and that during said period all banking transactions shall be suspended. During such holiday, excepting as hereinafter provided, no such banking institution or branch shall pay out, export, earmark, or permit the withdrawal or transfer in any manner or by any device whatsoever, of any gold or silver coin or bullion or currency or take any other action which might facilitate the hoarding thereof; nor shall any such banking institution or branch pay out deposits, make loans or discounts, deal in foreign exchange, transfer credits from the United States to any place abroad, or transact any other banking business whatsoever.
During such holiday, the Secretary of the Treasury, with the approval of the President and under such regulations as he may prescribe, is authorized and empowered (a) to permit any or all of such banking institutions to perform any or all of the usual banking functions, (b) to direct, require or permit the issuance of clearing house certificates or other evidences of claims against assets of banking institutions, and (c) to authorize and direct the creation in such banking institutions of special trust accounts for the receipt of new deposits which shall be subject to withdrawal on demand without any restriction or limitation and shall be kept separately in cash or on deposit in Federal Reserve Banks or invested in obligations of the United States.
As used in this order the term "banking institutions" shall include all Federal Reserve banks, national banking associations, banks, trust companies, savings banks, building and loan associations, credit unions, or other corporations, partnerships, associations or persons, engaged in the business of receiving deposits, making loans discounting business paper, or transacting any other form of banking business.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done in the City of Washington this 6th day of March-1 A. M. in the year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirty-Three, and of the Independence of the United States the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh.
FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT
By the President:
Secretary of State.
[CONTINUING IN FORCE THE BANK HOLIDAY PROCLAMATION OF MARCH 6, 1933]
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
WHEREAS, on March 6, 1933, I, FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, President of the United States of America, by Proclamation declared the existence of a national emergency and proclaimed a bank holiday extending from Monday the 6th day of March to Thursday the 9th day of March, 1933, both dates inclusive, in order to prevent the export, hoarding or earmarking of gold or silver coin, or bullion or currency, or speculation in foreign exchange; and
WHEREAS, under the Act of March 9, 1933, all Proclamations heretofore or hereafter issued by the President pursuant to the authority conferred by section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917, as amended, are approved and confirmed; and
WHEREAS, said national emergency still continues, and it is necessary to take further measures extending beyond March 9, 1933, in order to accomplish such purposes:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FRANKLIN D, ROOSEVELT, President of the United States of America, in view of such continuing national emergency and by virtue of the authority vested in me by Section 5 (b) of the Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. L., 411) as amended by the Act of March 9, 1933, do hereby proclaim, order, direct and declare that all the terms and provisions of said Proclamation of March 6, 1933, and the regulations and orders issued thereunder are hereby continued in full force and effect until further proclamation by the President.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have hereunto set my hand and have caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done in the District of Columbia, this 9th day of March, in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirty-Three, and of the Independence of the United States the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh.
FRANKLIN D ROOSEVELT
By the President:
Secretary of State.
March 9, 1933
The next several pages contain excerpts from the congressional record. I have them broken down into different subjects. This information will teach you what took place in 1933 and how the American people have been defrauded.
Fraud Senator Long
Mr. President, the condition of our State banks is due to the impositions of the big banks. They have loaded us down with their own collateral that they did not want themselves. They have filled our banks with German bonds and German marks. They have given us everything they did not want themselves. [March 9, 1933]
The result is the banks have become indebted to their depositors to the extent of $45,000,000,000 and have in their vaults less than $1,000,000,000 to pay it with. [March 9, 1933]
Does the gentleman believe in Government by secrecy? Secrecy is a badge of fraud. That is one thing that is wrong with our country now. We have a Government that is secretly administered....Mr. [J. P.] Morgan wants the loans made by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation secret so the people cannot find out if he takes advantage of the Government as he did in the Missouri-Pacific Railroad case. [March 13, 1933]
*My investigation convinced me that during the last quarter of a century the average production of gold has been falling off considerably. The gold mines of the world are practically exhausted. There is only about $11,000,000,000 in gold in the world, with the United States owning a little more than four billions. We have more than $100,000,000,000 in debts payable in gold of the present weight and fineness....As a practical proposition these contracts cannot be collected in gold for the obvious reason that the gold supply of the entire world is not sufficient to make payment. [March 15, 1933]
What Nation on earth would enter into contracts with other individuals and nations; which are payable in gold (real money) totaling one hundred billion dollars, knowing that we had in this country only four billion dollars? Is this not fraud? If a nation owes one hundred billion dollars, which is more money than they have in assets, and there is only eleven billion dollars in gold in the hole world, is not that country bankrupt? I believe this little known fact was used to black mail congress into turning over our nation to the BANKSTERS in return for not exposing them through foreclosure. As a result of congress passing the BANKSTERS legislation; were not all gold contracts made null and void; thereby forgiving these debts, just as in bankruptcy? Was not all gold owned by the government and private individuals turned over to the BANKSTERS. As a result the American people were given worthless bank notes while the BANKSTERS used real money, which was stolen from America and her people, to enslave the rest of the world. What took place in 1933 and going back to at least 1913, when the Federal Reserve Act was past; was most certainly fraud and violated the Constitution. Thereby, making every piece of social legislation that is based on contribution or obligation created by this fraud null and void. The problem is when you have the Executive branch, Congress and the Courts protecting the BANKSTERS interest, change is unlikely. If a majority of Americans voted out the BANKSTERS yes men and informed them the debt they created through usury and fraud is null and void, the country could be saved. Will this happen? No! And the BANKSTERS know it.
But I have no opportunity to proceed in the direction that I want to go. I have no chance, under summary circumstances such as exist here tonight, to proceed constructively in the fashion that I believe would best conserve the savings of the American people. I must vote either "yes" or "no" upon a formula that I never even saw until 2 hours ago. [March 9, 1933]
It is, of course, out of the question, Mr. Speaker, that any man can grasp the full meaning of that bill by listening to its reading, having had no intimation whatever beforehand of what it contains. [March 9, 1933]
Mr. Speaker, I regret that the membership of the House has had no opportunity to consider or even read this bill. The first opportunity I had to know what this legislation is was when it was read from the Clerk's desk. It is an important banking bill. It is a dictatorship over finance in the United States. It is complete control over the banking system in the United States....This gives supreme authority to those people who have wanted to control the finances of this Government, through a centralized system, to have such a system....If, on the other hand, this bill has been proposed and written by the same influences that are responsible for this financial situation, I shall fight it and do everything that I can to defeat it....I can see much in this bill that can be abused and that may have been dictated by the same banking influences that are responsible for our present predicament. [March 9, 1933]
The bill has been driven through the House with cyclonic speed after 40 minutes' debate, 20 minutes for the minority and 20 minutes for the majority. I have demanded a roll call, but have been unable to get the attention of the Chair....The great majority of the Members have been unable to get a minute's time to discuss this bill; we have been refused a roll call; and we have been refused recognition by the Chair....I want to put myself on record against a procedure of this kind and against the use of such methods in passing legislation affecting millions of lives and billions of dollars....It is safe to say that in normal times, after careful study of a printed copy and after careful debated and consideration, this bill would never have passed this House or any other House. Its passage could be accomplished only by rapid procedure, hurried and hectic debate, and a general rush for voting without roll call....I am suspicious of this railroading of bills through our House of Representatives, and I refuse to vote for a measure unseen and unknown. I want the Record to show that I was, and am, against this bill and this method of procedure; and I believe no good will come out of it for America. [March 9, 1933]
We were told on Thursday afternoon that the banks were going to open on Friday morning, and thereupon the legislation was passed. The banks have not opened yet, Mr President; they are not going to open today; and no one knows how many and when any of them are going to open. [March 11, 1933]
Senator Robinson of Indiana
Nobody had an opportunity to read it. It was passed "sight unseen." [March 11, 1933]
Senator Robinson of Indiana
Mr. President, I would like to invite the attention of the Senator from Louisiana [Mr. Long] to this colloquy between himself and the Senator from Virginia [Mr. Glass], which took place last Thursday on this floor:
Mr. Long. As I understand, the State banks, under the observation of my distinguished friend from Pennsylvania, are allowed to borrow from member banks. I should like to know about how much help they are going to get from member banks when they are closed today, and it is taking all the power of the Government to enable them to open.
Mr. Glass. They are not going to get anything today, and they will not get anything tomorrow if this legislation is defeated here in the Senate; but if this legislation is enacted, they will have access to banks representing 64 percent of the resources of the Federal Reserve Banking System. It had to be done by midnight, and all Members stayed here and heard the Senator from Virginia make that statement. It was assumed, of course, that a vote against the measure would make it impossible for the banks to open yesterday morning. A vote for it would permit the banks to open. They are still closed, I submit to my friend from Louisiana, and may be closed for some time to come. The legislation was rushed through as a result of statements made here by those who were at least charged with knowledge that it would permit the banks to open the next morning; otherwise anyone who voted against the measure would impede the return of prosperity and the reopening of the banks. They are still closed.
I think the Senator from Louisiana has a great deal of company in this body who would join him in destroying their votes if they could. The measure was passed without anybody's understanding it at all. I hope nothing like that will ever again be attempted. [March 11, 1933]
[This is happening again Americans, with the crime bill and the health care bill. How long will the American people remain asleep, and go along to get along.]
Senator La Follette
It is moreover provided that the Reconstruction Finance Corporation may purchase in unlimited amounts preferred stock of the reorganized banks and subsequently sell such preferred stock in the open market. These powers will vest in the financial interests of New York a virtual dictatorship over the banking of the entire Nation. [March 9, 1933]
The first provision of the bill (the banking bill passed March 9, 1933) validates and maintains the authority exercised by the President of the United States in the proclamation relating to the banks of the Nation issued by the President on March 6, 1933.
Section 2 confers upon the President the powers bestowed under the act of October 6, 1917, regardless of whether or not the country is involved in war.
Section 3 gives authority to regulate transactions in gold and to exercise such powers as are required from time to time to conserve our supply of gold to prevent hoarding and to protect the currency of the United States.
Section 4 confers specific authority to control the banking operations of national banks and State banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System to the end that the public may have restored to them, at the earliest possible hour, such banking as may be afforded by banks that are in position to transact banking activities without restriction. [March 9, 1933
The current press reports indicate there will be issued under this authority some $2,000,000 or more of new currency, and made available to the banks. Is that correct?
To be frank with the gentleman, I should not like to be bound in my answer by estimates outlined in newspaper reports. The issue might greatly exceed the amount suggested.
Will the gentleman say how much it is possible to be issued or is contemplated to be issued?
No one knows. It is not an arbitrary expansion. The purpose is to provide an elastic expansion to meet the exigencies and development of banking and business conditions.
I think it is fairly clear from the colloquy that has just taken place that the increased Federal Reserve circulation is to be in the form of Federal Reserve bank notes and not the present Federal Reserve notes that are in circulation to the extent of approximately $4,000,000,000, which are secured by 60 percent of eligible paper or Government bonds and 40 percent of gold. This is a new issue which is authorized under the Federal Reserve Act, which has not to any great extent been resorted to heretofore.
Will the gentleman yield for a question?
From my observation of the bill as it was read to the House, it would appear that the amount of bank notes that might be issued by the Federal Reserve System is not limited. That will depend entirely upon the amount of collateral that is presented from time to time for exchange for bank notes. Is that not correct.
Yes. I think that is correct.
So that it might run to $20,000,000,000?
In the discretion of the President and the Secretary of the Treasury. These notes are to be secured by assets that are approved, that are turned over by financial institutions to the Treasury of the United States.[March 9, 1933]
Those influences and individuals most responsible for the direful conditions through which we are now passing have resisted us at every point. We have been ridiculed and abused by the very money changers whose misconduct produced this terrible panic, with all its misery, its poverty, its hunger, its human suffering and human distress. "Whatsoever man soweth, that he also reap." The very ones who sowed the seeds of this panic are now reaping the fruits of their own shall misconduct as they see their monetary Tower of Babel crash amid a confusion of tongues. [March 9, 1933]
I am sorry to say--some of our own councils; there is not any difference; the same men who sat and conferred about the kind of financial policy that was going to govern this country--Mr. Parker Gilbert, of J. P. Morgan & Co.; Eugene Meyer, the chairman of the Federal Reserve, and Mr. Ogden L. Mills, together with the distinguished Senator from Virginia [Mr. Glass]--have every one had their finger in the pie during the last 20 years. There has not been any difference in what they advocated then and what they are advocating now, and they are doing now just what they have done for the last 12 years....Here in the United States the Federal Reserve System has been dominated and controlled, and the financial structure of America has been dominated, controlled, and negotiated through a certain little clique, and it has brought this country to wreck and to ruin; and now we have the same set here giving us orders to close 90 percent of the banks in the United States and open 10 percent, and we are still following that kind of prophet....Had I been the President of the United States--and I guess it is a good thing that I never was--I never would have sent for Eugene Meyer, the chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. He has been here, the carcass hovering over the lives and fortunes of these people, for many, many years. He has been the raven that has said to the American people. "Nevermore!"
Food could not be had for the people, but it can be had for the financial barons. The land had become barren of a means of exchange to live upon, and when they had killed their neighbors, and their brothers, and starved their children to death, broke their banks, depopulated their houses, wrecked their firesides, then they came and said, "Oh, yes, inflation is necessary, not to save the people of the United States, but to save us, who have been guilty of the destruction from which this country is now suffering."
That is the equity of what we are about to do. Yes; you are going to close us down. Yes; you have already closed us down, and have been doing it long before this year. Our President says that for 3 years we have been on the way to bankruptcy. We have been on the way to bankruptcy longer than 3 years. We have been on the way to bankruptcy ever since we began to allow the financial mastery of this country gradually to get into the hands of a little clique that has held it right up until they would send us to the grave.
In 1 month we have been told that there could be no medium of exchange allowed under the United States Government, because, they said, if we inflate, it will destroy the credit of the United States Government. But today, when they have closed down all the banks, they come back and say, "No; it will not ruin the credit of the United States Government to inflate, but you must inflate for the financial masters and not for the people." They have come back, Mr. President, and they have said, "We have decided to inflate." Abel and Cain have become the same the man. Ephraim is joined to his idols; let him alone. They have come back and said. "We have to inflate, but we are going to inflate and keep open the big masters who have wrecked and destroyed the communities and the banks and have ruined the hopes for the present time of the people of the United States living in the country. We are going to save the big masters, who have compelled it, and condemn to an eternal damnation, to hell and destruction every man who was outside this clique that brought this wreckage onto the people of the United States."
You cannot blame the consequences upon anybody except yourselves, because you have come back and said, "Oh, what you have prescribed is necessary for the life of the country, but we are not going to let any part of the country have it except a few financial masters that we have seen fit to prefer."
Mr. President, I am sorry for the vote I cast on Thursday night. I voted for the bill. I did not have an opportunity to read it at all, except while the clerk was reading it at the desk....I am sorry for that vote. I wonder if I could get unanimous consent to withdraw my vote and have it entered "nay"? I do not know what the rule is, but if I could do that, I would like to have it done....But I am very sorry for the vote I cast. I promise the Senate I will never again be a party to anything like that. Never again will I be a party to bringing a bill in and swallowing it hook, line, and sinker as I did that day.
I want to compliment the Senators who did not vote for the bill. They showed more sense than I did. If I ever do such a thing again, I want to be bored for the hollow horn....But it seems I have hoped in vain, and therefore the basis on which I cast my vote was a faulty one and I regret having voted that way. [March 11, 1933]
Something has to be done now, and while we are clamoring to do something for the aid and benefit of the people in this crisis, the powerful bankers who have caused it and brought ruin to our country are at the doors of Congress, under the guise of promoting the general welfare, endeavoring to get a stronger grip on the throats of the American people and endeavoring to get more privileges and monopolies by reason of the distress that they have brought upon our country.
....Why is it necessary to have Government ownership and operation of banks? Let us go back to the Constitution of the United States and follow it, and this country will be safe. Give the people the truth at all times; do not deceive them, do not keep anything from them, but at all times and under all conditions tell them the truth about economic conditions. Jefferson was right when he said, "When the people get the truth, the country is safe." The trouble is that during the last few months and years the great metropolitan daily newspapers have printed only one side of a proposition; they have failed to give the people the facts. The same criticism can be urged against the radio, screen, and stage.
The Constitution of the United States says that Congress shall coin money and regulate its value. That does not mean, and I do not believe that anyone can construe it to mean, that the Congress of the United States, composed of the duly elected representatives of the people, have a right to farm out the great privilege to the banking system, until today a few powerful bankers control the issuance and distribution of money--something that the Constitution of the United States says Congress shall do. Let us get back to the mandate of the Constitution of the United States.
I want to show you where the people are being imposed upon by reason of the delegation of this tremendous power. I invite your attention to the fact that section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act provides that whenever the Government of the United States issues and delivers money, Federal Reserve notes, which are based on the credit of the Nation--they represent a mortgage upon your home and my home, and upon all the property of all the people of the Nation--to the Federal Reserve agent, an interest charge shall be collected for the Government. [Did you get that Americans? Go back and read A Country Defeated In Victory.] When the Federal Reserve agent delivers the notes--currency--to the private banking institutions, the law says the Federal Reserve agent shall collect from the bank such interest charge as the Federal Reserve Board may assess. The law makes it a mandatory duty upon the Federal Reserve Board to require the payment of interest for the use of the Government's credit. The money collected on interest charges should go into the Treasury. Has that ever been done? No; it has never been done. Billions and billions of dollars have been issued and are being issued every year, and they have been delivered to the private bankers without interest and without charge, and if the law had been complied with they would owe this Government billions of dollars today....So if you want to balance your Budget, and you are really honest and conscientious about it, why do you not make the bankers who have ruined this country pay their share? [March 13, 1933]
Answer: Because the American people don't care, all their interested in is how many things they can get with their weekly pay check and how long is their vacation going to be.
Call for investigation
For the information of the Members, permission having been granted for that purpose, I am inserting a copy of the resolution that has been introduced by me to investigate the Treasury of the United States, and the monetary, financial, banking, and currency laws of the United States.
House Resolution 31
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that a shortage of currency and a monopoly of credit exists in the United States and that the power to control the issue of the public currency, which is one of the sovereign powers of the United States Government, has been given over to private interests and that the said private interests have abused that power and have been guilty of unlawful practices in connection with it and have unlawfully extended credit to themselves and to foreigners and foreign central banks at the expense of, and to the great injury of, the people of the United States and that by reason of such practices the people and the Government of the United States have suffered great financial losses; and
Whereas, although the law requires a certain agency of the United States Government to fix an interest rate on all issues of the public currency advanced at the request of the aforesaid private interests and requires that the aforesaid private interests shall pay such interest charges to the United States Government it has been charged and there is reason to believe that this law has for 17 years been deliberately disobeyed and that the Government and the people of the United States have thereby been deliberately defrauded of immense sums of money and that such sums of money are due to the Government from the aforesaid private interests; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that vast profits which have been made in times past by the private interests to whom was farmed out the great privilege of controlling the currency of the United States have not been properly accounted for and that the knowledge of such profits has been concealed from the people by bookkeeping devices and that the legal share of such profits belonging to the Government has not been in its entirety set aside or paid over to the Government but has on the contrary been used speculatively by the said private interests for their own benefit and that the published reports of the said private interests are not acceptable to the people of the United States and should by examined by the representatives of the people; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that although it is unlawful to accept time drafts and bills of exchange drawn upon them, and by permitting national banks to buy and sell with their endorsement time drafts, bills of exchange, and trade acceptances, and by rulings to the effect that such circulating evidences of debt, including those drawn in dollars by foreigners for their own purposes, are rediscountable here and purchasable here in the open discount market and may be used by the aforesaid private interests as collateral security for new issues of United States currency, great losses have been inflicted upon the Government and the people of the United States, the Government having unwisely been made the guarantor of that particular kind of currency, and that such losses have and are now being paid by the exportation of gold; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that although the original provision of law for the issue of currency on the security of time drafts or bills of exchange to be used in financing the importation of goods, contemplated goods, which were to be imported into or exported out of the United States, the fact that the words "United States" were omitted from the law gave excuse for a ruling which extends this provision to time drafts and bills of exchange financing goods imported and exported by foreign countries from and to foreign countries; and that this provision has been extended to cover time drafts and bills of exchange financing goods in domestic shipment or stored in domestic warehouses, and to time drafts and bills of exchange financing goods belonging to foreigners or others, which are stored in foreign warehouses, and has like wise been extended to cover time drafts and bills of exchange drawn to finance goods shipped between two or more foreign countries, and to time drafts and bills of exchange not related to goods of any character by merely designed to furnish cheap exchange to foreigners, and that all such time drafts and bills of exchange have been made collateral security for United States currency which the United States Government is obligated to redeem in gold, and that great losses have been inflicted upon the Government and the people of the United States by reason of these rulings and extensions, by the abuse of acceptance privileges, and by the use of such time drafts and bills of exchange as collateral security for United States currency; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that although the original provision of law under which the private interests aforesaid assumed power to control the issue of the public currency inaugurated the use of a new currency based solely on notes and bills accepted for rediscount, the private interests aforesaid had amendments added to existing laws giving them power to use each and every kind of debt paper, purchasable in the open discount market, as collateral security for new issues of United States currency, and that, by means of these and other vicious amendments to existing law the Government of the United States has been put in debt by the aforesaid private interests indiscriminately in all parts of the world as the enforced backer of private debtors, and that the Government has thus been made the backer of swindlers, smugglers, and speculators, and that low elements in all nations have been allowed to operate on the public credit of the United States Government, supplemented by the bank deposits of the American people, and that immense losses have thereby been inflicted upon the Government and the people; and
Whereas the reserves of the national banks have been confiscated and impounded in a central pool and placed under the control of the aforesaid private interests, and it has been charged and there is reason to believe that the said private interests have drawn immense sums of gold out of the said reserves belonging to our national-bank depositors and have lent such sums to foreign central banks and have lost other such sums in speculative enterprises and have transferred other such sums in gold to themselves and their foreign principals, thus requiring the continuous replenishment of the reserves in the pool at the expense of the American public and to the great injury of the Government and the people, and that the said private interests have established control and operate for their private benefit by means of their control of the said pool of confiscated bank reserves belonging to our national-bank depositors, and that they use United States Government obligations unlawfully in the operating of the said discount market, and that they have made the New York Stock Exchange and other exchanges adjuncts of the said discount market and that by reason of their control of the discount market they control the entire money market of the United States, all money rates, including the call-money rate, the prices of all stocks and bonds on the exchanges, the prices of all commodities, the wages of all our people, and the value of all property both real and personal; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that by permitting certain banks in the United States to become the agents of foreign central banks, the wealth of the United States has been conveniently placed at the disposal of the said foreign banks and their customers; and that property belonging to American citizens has been taken from them without their knowledge and consent and without due process of law and that such property has been exported to foreign lands for the benefit of foreign central banks and their customers and that such property has likewise been exported to foreign lands to satisfy debts incurred by the aforesaid private interests and that such property belonging to the bank depositors of the United States is now being exported to satisfy claims held by foreigners against other foreigners in default, the aforesaid private interests having abused their power over the public currency so as to make the United States Government the backer of the defaulters, and that other such property belonging to the people of the United States is likewise being exported to finance foreigners in competition with American producers, and for other purposes; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that the division of the United States into arbitrary financial areas has violated the principle of the sovereignty of the separate States of the Union and has diminished the importance and hindered the growth of certain States and threatens the financial stability of such States by making it possible for the resources of such States to be drawn outside of their border and exported to foreign lands; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that the aforesaid private interests have injured our foreign trade, reduced our trade balances, adversely affected the prices of our goods and commodities, and have benefited foreigners and themselves at the expense of the Government and the people of the United States, and have financed foreign countries, cities, towns, public utilities, banks, corporations, and individuals with funds belonging to American bank depositors, and that "blocks" of bonds and stocks issued by foreign governments, cities, railroads, industrial corporations, and the like have had debentures issued against them for sale to American investors and that foreign securities of small value or of doubtful value and of no marketability abroad have thus been sold to American investors to the extent of billions of dollars at a great profit to the aforesaid private interests and to foreigners but to the great loss of American investors, and that mass credits have been opened in the United States for foreign interests and have been withdrawn from the United States by means of drafts drawn in dollars rediscountable here or purchasable here in the open market and paid for in gold taken from our national-bank reserves or in United States currency redeemable in gold upon demand, and that corporations have been accorded extraordinary privileges, including the right to incur liabilities equal to 10 times their capital stock and surplus and that these and other corporations have been instrumental in having questionable foreign acceptances drawn in dollars rediscounted here and purchased here and used as collateral security for United States currency; and that there has been an abuse of acceptance facilities in the United States, and an abuse of open-market privileges and an abuse of Government funds and obligations and an abuse of the public currency; and
Whereas there is a decrease of business and industry in the United States and thousands of business enterprises have failed and the owners thereof been forced into bankruptcy; and thousands of banks have been obliged to close their doors with a resultant loss to American bank depositors of several billions of dollars; and wage-earners by the millions have been thrown out of employment; and a condition of widespread misery, want, and suffering has been created among the people of the United States and a breaking up of American homes and families has taken place and a dispersal of American children has occurred which has removed them from the care of their natural protectors and there is an unprecedented condition of crime and disrespect on the part of certain elements in the population for law and duly constituted authority, all of which is said to betoken an economic and financial crisis in the affairs of the Nation, and it has been charged that there is reason to believe that this crisis has been caused by the conditions set forth herein, and other graver irregularities, crimes, and abuses; and
Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that the independent United States Treasury has been destroyed and its functions taken over by the private interests which control the public currency and that public moneys raised from the people by taxation have been used speculatively and that such funds have been improperly secured and losses and abuses have occurred in connection with them, and that irregularities have been disclosed in the accounts of the War Finance Corporation and that Government obligations have been unlawfully used to control the money market for the benefit of the aforesaid private interests and their foreign principals; and
Whereas there is a deficit in the estimated receipts of the United States Treasury and it has been charged and there is reason to believe that a proper scrutiny and examination of the accounts of the fiscal agents of the Government and of the United States Treasury and all related matters is necessary in order to safeguard the rights of the people; and Whereas it has been charged and there is reason to believe that the monetary, financial, banking, and currency laws of the United States have been evaded, maladministered, disregarded, abused, and disobeyed, and that private interests have made false representations and have thereby obtained laws, and amendments to existing laws, and illegal and unfair rulings for their own benefit and financial profit at the expense of the Government and the people of the United States, and that the proper framing emendation, administration, and impartial execution of the banking and currency laws of the United States are matters of vital concern to we people of the United States; and
Whereas legislation is now pending involving important changes in our banking, currency, and monetary systems and vitally affecting the Federal Government and the United States Treasury, United States foreign trade and commerce, United States foreign relations, our national banks and other financial institutions, and bills have been introduced having for their purpose the amendment of the act generally known as the federal antitrust law; and
Whereas it is deemed advisable to investigate the monetary, banking, currency, and fiscal affairs of the United States in their entirety and to gather the facts bearing on the aforesaid conditions and chargers or in any way relating thereto or to any of the subjects above mentioned as a basis for remedial and other legislative purposes: Therefore be it
Resolved, That the Speaker of the House of Representatives be, and he is hereby, authorized to appoint a special committee consisting of five members and such substituted members as may be from time to time selected by him to fill vacancies, if any occur, in the special committee, and that the said special committee is authorized and directed to fully investigate and to inquire into each and all of the above-recited matters and into all matters and subjects connected with or appurtenant to or bearing upon the same; be it further
Resolved, That said committee as a whole or by subcommittee is authorized to sit during the sessions of the House and during the recess of Congress. Its hearings shall be open to the public. The committee as a whole or by subcommittee is authorized to hold its meeting both during the sessions of Congress and throughout the recesses and adjournment thereof and in such cities and places in the United States as it may from time to time designate; to employ counsel, experts, accountants, bookkeepers, clerical, and other assistants; may summon and compel the attendance of witnesses; may send for persons and papers, and administer oaths to witnesses. The Comptroller of the Currency, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and printing, the Director of the Mint, the head of the Department of Commerce, the Secretary of State, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the president of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, and their respective assistants and subordinates are hereby respective departments, to procure for the committee from time to time such information as is subject to their control or inspection, and to allow the use of their assistants for the making of such investigations with respect to matters under their respective jurisdiction as the committee or any subcommittee may from time to time request. Such committee shall take such testimony, have such printing and binding done, and make such expenditures as it deems necessary; and be it further
Resolved, That no person shall be excused from giving testimony or from answering any question or from otherwise disclosing any fact within his knowledge as an individual or as a member of a board, an officer or director of a bank, corporation, or otherwise, or from producing any book, paper, or document on the ground that the giving of such testimony or the production of such book, paper, or document would tend to incriminate him, or for any other reason. It shall be within the power of the committee or subcommittee to grant immunity from prosecution with respect to any matter or thing concerning which he may be interrogated and as to which he shall truthfully make answer under oath upon such investigation. The Speaker shall have authority to sign and the Clerk to attest subpoenas during the recess of Congress.
I have asked the Committee on Rules for a hearing on this resolution and hope to get favorable action on it in a short time. An investigation will disclose that our President had sufficient reasons to say that the money-changers should be driven from the temple. acountry2.htm
Associated Files: Common Law Versus Conquest The Law of Office Found
How Long can a Corporation Live?
History of Lawful Gold and Silver Legal Tender and the Debt Brought on by unlawful Fiat Paper Money Friends, Enemies and the die-hard Doubters
The United States is Still a British Colony A King's Charter that Refuses to Die
A Country Defeated in Victory Part I Part III Part IV Part V