Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972
New York, 1973


Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers.


PART ONE Action taken by the Conference
Chapter I. DECLARATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT................................................................................................. 3
Chapter II. ACTION PLAN FOR THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT............................6 A.
Framework for environmental action................................................................................6 B.
Recommendations for action at the international level...................................................6 C.
The Action Plan....................................................................................................................27
World Environment Day......................................................................................................32
Nuclear weapons tests.........................................................................................................32
Convening of a second United Nations Conference on the Human Environment............32
Expression of thanks...........................................................................................................33

PART TWO Background
VI. CONSTITUTION OF THE CONFERENCE...............................................................37

PART THREE Proceedings of the Conference
VII. ATTENDANCE AND ORGANIZATION OF WORK.........................................43 A. Participants.......................................................................................................................43 B.
Opening of the Conference..............................................................................................43 C.
Election of the President..................................................................................................43 D. Rules of procedure ..........................................................................................................43 E.
Election of officers other than the President...................................................................43 F.
Adoption of the agenda....................................................................................................44 G.
Constitution of subsidiary bodies.........................................................................................44
VIII. BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE GENERAL DEBATE...............................................45
ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT............................................................................... 49
First Committee...............................................................................................................51 B.
Second Committee...........................................................................................................55 C.
Third Committee..............................................................................................................59 D.
Working Group on the Declaration on the Human Environment..................................63 E.
Credentials Committee........................................................................................................66
XII. ADOPTION OF THE REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE......................................68


1. Report of the Credentials Committee........................................................................70 II.
Report of the Working Group on the Declaration on the Human Environment...
III. General Principles for the assessment and Control of the Marine pollution........
IV. List of documents before the Conference....................................................................75
V. Table showing the correspondence between the numbers of the recommendations as they appear in the Report and the numbers of the recommendations as adopted by the conference............................................................................................................................76

ABBREVIATIONS used in the report of the Conference and in official Conference documents

ACC Administrative Committee on Coordination (United Nations) ACMRR Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research ACOMR Advisory Committee on Oceanic Meteorological Research CIAP Interamerican Committee of the Alliance for Progress ECA Economic Commission for Africa (United Nations) ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (United Nations) ECE Economic Commission for Europe (United Nations) ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America (United Nations) ENEA European Nuclear Energy Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations GARP Global Atmospheric Research Programme GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GESAMP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (IMCO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO WHO/IAEA/UN) GIPME Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAMAP International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer IATA International Air Transport Association IBP International Biological Programme IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICC International Computing Centre ICE International Centre for the Environment ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea ICSPRO Inter-Secretariat Committee on Scientific Problems Relating to Oceanography icsu International Council of Scientific Unions IGOSS Integrated Global Ocean Station System IHD International Hydrological Decade ILO International Labour Organisation imco Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization ioc intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission iSSS International Society of Soil Science ITU International Telecommunication Union IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUFRO International Union of Forestry Research Organization ivic Institute of Scientific Research, Caracas IWG intergovernmental Working Group IWP Indicative World Plan LEPOR Long-term and Expanded Programme of Oceanic Exploration and Research MAB Man and the Biosphere Programme (UNESCO) OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development SCOPE Scientific Committee On Problems of the Environment SCOR Scientific Committee on Ocean Research UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESOB United Nations Economic and Social Office in Beirut UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development organization UNISIST World Science Information System UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees UNSCEAR United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation WEI World Environment Institute WFP World Food Programme WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization WWW World Weather Watch

PART ONE Action Taken by the Conference


The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, having met at Stockholm from 5 to 16 June 1972,

Having considered the need for a common outlook and for common principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment, proclaims that:

1. Man is both creature and moulder of his environment, which gives him physical sustenance and affords him the opportunity for intellectual, moral, social and spiritual growth. In the long and tortuous evolution of the human race on this planet a stage has been reached when, through the rapid acceleration of science and technology, man has acquired the power to transform his environment in countless ways and on an unprecedented scale. Both aspects of man's environment, the natural and the man-made, are essential to his well-being and to the enjoyment of basic human rights the right to life itself.

2. The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world; it is the urgent desire of the peoples of the whole world and the duty of all Governments.

3. Man has constantly to sum up experience and go on discovering, inventing, creating and advancing. In our time, man's capability to transform his surroundings, if used wisely, can bring to all peoples the benefits of development and the opportunity to enhance the quality of life. Wrongly or heedlessly applied, the same power can do incalculable harm to human beings and the human environment. We see around us growing evidence of man-made harm in many regions of the earth: dangerous levels of pollution in water, air, earth and living beings; major and undesirable disturbances to the ecological balance of the biosphere; destruction and depletion of irreplaceable resources; and gross deficiencies, harmful to the physical, mental and social health of man, in the man-made environment, particularly in the living and working environment.

4. In the developing countries most of the environmental problems are caused by under-development. Millions continue to live far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence, deprived of adequate food and clothing, shelter and education, health and sanitation. Therefore, the developing countries must direct their efforts to development, bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. For the same purpose, the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries. In the industrialized countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development.

5. The natural growth of population continuously presents problems for the preservation of the environment, and adequate policies and measures should be adopted, as appropriate, to face these problems. Of all things in the world, people are the most precious. It is the people that propel social progress, create social wealth, develop science and technology and, through their hard work, continuously transform the human environment. Along with social progress and the advance of production, science and technology, the capability of man to improve the environment increases with each passing day.

6. A point has been reached in history when we must shape our actions throughout the world with a more prudent care for their environmental consequences. Through ignorance or indifference we can do massive and irreversible harm to the earthly environment on which our life and well-being depend. Conversely, through fuller knowledge and wiser action, we can achieve for ourselves and our posterity a better life in an environment more in keeping with human needs and hopes. There are broad vistas for the enhancement of environmental quality and the creation of a good life. What is needed is an enthusiastic but calm state of mind and intense but orderly work. For the purpose of attaining freedom in the world of nature, man must use knowledge to build, in collaboration with nature, a better environment. To defend and improve the human environment for present and future generations has become an imperative goal for mankind-a goal to be pursued together with, and in harmony with, the established and fundamental goals of peace and of worldwide economic and social development.

7. To achieve this environmental goal will demand the acceptance of responsibility by citizens and communities and by enterprises and institutions at every level, all sharing equitably in common efforts. Individuals in all walks of life as well as organizations in many fields, by their values and the sum of their actions, will shape the world environment of the future. Local and national governments will bear the greatest burden for large-scale environmental policy and action within their jurisdictions. International cooperation is also needed in order to raise resources to support the developing countries in carrying out their responsibilities in this field. A growing class of environmental problems, because they are regional or global in extent or because they affect the common international realm, will require extensive cooperation among nations and action by international organizations in the common interest. The Conference calls upon Governments and peoples to exert common efforts for the preservation and improvement of the human environment, for the benefit of all the people and for their posterity.


States the common conviction that:

Principle 1

Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being, and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. In this respect, policies promoting or perpetuating apartheid, racial segregation, discrimination, colonial and other forms of oppression and foreign domination stand condemned and must be eliminated.

Principle 2

The natural resources of the earth, including the air, water, land, flora and fauna and especially representative samples of natural ecosystems, must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or management, as appropriate.

Principle 3

The capacity of the earth to produce vital renewable resources must be maintained and, wherever practicable, restored or improved.

Principle 4

Man has a special responsibility to safeguard and wisely manage the heritage of wildlife and its habitat, which are now gravely imperiled by a combination of adverse factors. Nature conservation, including wildlife, must therefore receive importance in planning for economic development.

Principle 5

The non-renewable resources of the earth must be employed in such a way as to guard against the danger of their future exhaustion and to ensure that benefits from such employment are shared by all mankind.

Principle 6

The discharge of toxic substances or of other substances and the release of heat, in such quantities or concentrations as to exceed the capacity of the environment to render them harmless, must be halted in order to ensure that serious or irreversible damage is not inflicted upon ecosystems. The just struggle of the peoples of ill countries against pollution should be supported.

Principle 7

States shall take all possible steps to prevent pollution of the seas by substances that are liable to create hazards to human health, to harm living resources and marine life, to damage amenities or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea.

Principle 8

Economic and social development is essential for ensuring a favourable living and working environment for man and for creating conditions on earth that are necessary for the improvement of the quality of life.

Principle 9

Environmental deficiencies generated by the conditions of under-development and natural disasters pose grave problems and can best be remedied by accelerated development through the transfer of substantial quantities of financial and technological assistance as a supplement to the domestic effort of the developing countries and such timely assistance as may be required.

Principle 10

For the developing countries, stability of prices and adequate earnings for primary commodities and raw materials are essential to environmental management, since economic factors as well as ecological processes must be taken into account.

Principle 11

The environmental policies of all States should enhance and not adversely affect the present or future development potential of developing countries, nor should they hamper the attainment of better living conditions for all, and appropriate steps should be taken by States and international organizations with a view to reaching agreement on meeting the possible national and international economic consequences resulting from the application of environmental measures.

Principle 12

Resources should be made available to preserve and improve the environment, taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries and any costs which may emanate from their incorporating environmental safeguards into their development planning and the need for making available to them, upon their request, additional international technical and financial assistance for this purpose.

Principle 13

In order to achieve a more rational management of resources and thus to improve the environment, States should adopt an integrated and coordinated approach to their development planning so as to ensure that development is compatible with the need to protect and improve environment for the benefit of their population.

Principle 14

Rational planning constitutes an essential tool for reconciling any conflict between the needs of development and the need to protect and improve the environment.

Principle 15

Planning must be applied to human settlements and urbanization with a view to avoiding adverse effects on the environment and obtaining maximum social, economic and environmental benefits for all. In this respect. projects which arc designed for colonialist and racist domination must be abandoned.

Principle 16

Demographic policies which are without prejudice to basic human rights and which are deemed appropriate by Governments concerned should be applied in those regions where the rate of population growth or excessive population concentrations are likely to have adverse effects on the environment of the human environment and impede development.

Principle 17

Appropriate national institutions must be entrusted with the task of planning, managing or controlling the 9 environmental resources of States with a view to enhancing environmental quality.

Principle 18

Science and technology, as part of their contribution to economic and social development, must be applied to the identification, avoidance and control of environmental risks and the solution of environmental problems and for the common good of mankind.

Principle 19

Education in environmental matters, for the younger generation as well as adults, giving due consideration to the underprivileged, is essential in order to broaden the basis for an enlightened opinion and responsible conduct by individuals, enterprises and communities in protecting and improving the environment in its full human dimension. It is also essential that mass media of communications avoid contributing to the deterioration of the environment, but, on the contrary, disseminate information of an educational nature on the need to project and improve the environment in order to enable man to develop in every respect.

Principle 20

Scientific research and development in the context of environmental problems, both national and multinational, must be promoted in all countries, especially the developing countries. In this connection, the free flow of up-to-date scientific information and transfer of experience must be supported and assisted, to facilitate the solution of environmental problems; environmental technologies should be made available to developing countries on terms which would encourage their wide dissemination without constituting an economic burden on the developing countries.

Principle 21

States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

Principle 22

States shall cooperate to develop further the international law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage caused by activities within the jurisdiction or control of such States to areas beyond their jurisdiction.

Principle 23

Without prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country, and the extent of the applicability of standards which are valid for the most advanced countries but which may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries.

Principle 24

international matters concerning the protection and improvement of the environment should be handled in a cooperative spirit by all countries, big and small, on an equal footing. Cooperation through multilateral or bilateral arrangements or other appropriate means is essential to effectively control, prevent, reduce and eliminate adverse environmental effects resulting from activities conducted in all spheres, in such a way that due account is taken of the sovereignty and interests of all States.

Principle 25

States shall ensure that international organizations play a coordinated, efficient and dynamic role for the protection and improvement of the environment.

Principle 26

Man and his environment must be spared the effects of nuclear weapons and all other means of mass destruction. States must strive to reach prompt agreement, in the relevant international organs, on the elimination and complete destruction of such weapons.

21st plenary meeting 16 June 1972


A. Framework for environmental action

The recommendations adopted by the Conference for the substantive items on the agenda of the Conference are set out in chapter 11, section B, below.' The recommendations have been grouped, in section C, in an Action Plan that makes it possible to identify international programmes and activities across the boundaries of all subject areas. The broad types of action that make up the Plan are:

(a) The global environmental assessment programme (Earthwatch);

(b) Environmental management activities;

(c) International measures to support the national and international actions of assessment and management.

The framework of the Action Plan is illustrated in the following diagram.

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT MANAGEMENT Evaluation and review Goal setting and planning Research International consultation Monitoring and agreements Information exchange

SUPPORTING MEASURES Education and training Organization Public information Financing

Technical cooperation

B. Recommendations for action at the

international level

The texts of the recommendations adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment

(see chapter X) are given below.'


Recommendation I

The planning, improvement and management of rural and urban settlements demand an approach, at a, I levels, which embraces all aspects of the human environment, both natural and Man-Made. Accordingly, it is recommended:

(a) That all development assistance agencies, whether international, such as the United Nations Development Programme and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, regional or national, should in their development assistance activities also give high priority within available resources to requests from Governments for assistance in the planning of human settlements, notably in housing, transportation, water, sewerage and public health, the mobilization of human and financial resources, the improvement of transitional urban settlements and the provision and maintenance of essential community services, in order to achieve as far as possible the social well-being of the receiving country as a whole;

(b) That these agencies also be prepared to assist the less industrialized countries in solving the environmental problems of development projects; to this end they should actively support the training and encourage the recruitment of requisite personnel, as far as possible within these countries themselves.

Recommendation 2

1. It is recommended that Governments should designate to the Secretary-General areas in which they have committed themselves (or are prepared to commit themselves) to a long-term programme of improvement and global promotion of the environment.

(a) In this connection, countries are invited to share internationally all relevant information on the problems they encounter and the solutions they devise in developing these areas.

(b) Countries concerned will presumably appoint an appropriate body to plan such a programme, and to supervise its implementation, for areas which could vary in size from a city block to a national region; presumably, too, the programme will be designated to serve, among other purposes, as a vehicle for the preparation and launching of experimental and pilot projects.

(c) Countries which are willing to launch an improvement programme should be prepared to welcome international cooperation, seeking the advice or assistance of competent international bodies.

2. It is further recommended. (a) That in order to ensure the success of the programme, Governments should urge the Secretary-General to undertake a process of planning and coordination whereby contact would be established with nations likely to participate in the programme; international teams of experts might be assembled for that purpose;

(b) That a Conference/Demonstration on Experimental Human Settlements should be held under the auspices of the United Nations in order to provide for coordination and the exchange of information and to demonstrate to world public opinion the potential of this approach by means of a display of experimental projects;

(c) That nations should take into consideration Canada's offer to organize such a Conference/Demonstration and to act as host to it. Recommendation 3 Certain aspects of human settlements can have international implications, for example, the "export" of pollution from urban and industrial areas, and the effects of seaports on international hinterlands. Accordingly, it is recommended that the attention of Governments be drawn to the need to consult bilaterally or regionally whenever environmental conditions or development plans in one country could have repercussions in one or more neighbouring countries. Recommendation 4

1. It is recommended that Governments and the Secretary-General, the latter in consultation with the appropriate United Nations agencies, take the following steps:

(a) Entrust the over-all responsibility for an agreed programme of environmental research at the international level to any central body that may be given the coordinating authority in the field of the environment, taking into account the coordination work already being provided on the regional level, especially by the Economic Commission for Europe;

(b) Identify, wherever possible, an existing agency within the United Nations system as the principal focal point for initiating and coordinating research in each principal area and, where there are competing claims, establish appropriate priorities;

(c) Designate the following as priority areas for research:

(i) Theories, policies and methods for the comprehensive environmental development of urban and rural settlements;
(ii) Methods of assessing quantitative housing needs and of formulating and implementing phased programmes designed to satisfy them (principal bodies responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, regional economic commissions and United Nations Economic and Social Office in Beirut).
(iii) Environmental-socioeconomic indicators of the quality of human settlements, particularly in terms of desirable occupancy standards and residential densities, with a view to identifying their time trends;
(iv) Social-economic and demographic factors underlying migration and spatial distribution of population, including the problem of transitional settlements (principal bodies responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Centre for Housing, Building and Planning), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization, International Labour Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations);
(v) Designs, technologies, financial and administrative procedures for the efficient and expanded production of housing and related infra-structure, suitably adapted to local conditions;
(vi) Water supply, sewerage and waste-disposal systems adapted to local conditions, particularly in semi-tropical, tropical, Arctic and sub- Arctic areas (principal body responsible: World Health Organization);
(vii) Alternative methods of meeting rapidly increasing urban transportation needs (principal bodies responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Resources and Transport Division and Centre for Housing, Building and Planning));
(viii) Physical, mental and social effects of stresses created by living and working conditions in human settlements, particularly urban conglomerates, for example the accessibility of buildings to persons whose physical mobility is impaired (principal bodies responsible: International Labour Organization, World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat).

2. It is further recommended that Governments con- sider cooperative arrangements to undertake the necessary research whenever the above-mentioned problem areas have a specific regional impact. In such cases, proves on should be made for the exchange of information and research findings with countries of other geographical regions sharing similar problems.

Recommendation 5

It is recommended:-

(a) That Governments take steps to arrange for the exchange of visits by those who are conducting research in the public or private institutions of their countries;

(b) That Governments and the Secretary-General ensure the acceleration of the exchange of information concerning past and on-going research, experimentation and project implementation covering all aspects of human settlements, which is conducted by the United Nations system or by public or private entities, including academic institutions.

Recommendation 6

It is recommended that Governments and the Secretary General give urgent attention to the training of those who are needed to promote integrated action on the planning, development and management of human settlements.

Recommendation 7

It is Recommended: (a) That Governments and the Secretary-General provide equal possibilities for everybody, both by training, and by ensuring access to relevant means and information to influence their own environment by themselves;

(b) That Governments and the Secretary-General ensure that the institutions concerned shall be strengthened and that special training activities shall be established, making use of existing projects of regional environmental development, for the benefit of the less industrialized countries, covering the following:

(i) intermediate and auxiliary personnel for national public services who, in turn, would be in a position to train others for similar tasks (principal bodies responsible: World Health Organization, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Centre for Housing, Building, and Planning), United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations);

(ii) Specialists in environmental planning and in rural development (principal bodies responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Centre for Housing, Building and Planning), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations);

(iii) Community developers for self-help programmes for low-income groups (principal body responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Centre for Housing, Building and Planning));

(iv) Specialists in working environments (principal bodies responsible: International Labour Organization, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Centre for Housing, Building and Planning), World Health Organization);

(v) Planners and organizers of mass transport systems and services with special reference to environmental development (principal body responsible: Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (Resources and Transport Division)).

Recommendation 8

It is recommended that regional institutions take stock of the requirements of their regions for various environmental skills and of the facilities available to meet those requirements in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate training within regions.

Recommendation 9

It is recommended that the World Health Organization increase its efforts to support Governments in planning for improving water supply and sewerage services through Its community water supply programme, taking account, as far as possible, of the framework of total environment programmes for communities.

Recommendation 10

it is recommended that development assistance agencies should give higher priority, where justified in the light of the social benefits, to supporting Governments in financing and setting up services for water supply, disposal of water from all sources, and liquid-waste and solid waste disposal and treatment as part of the objectives of the Second United Nations Development Decade.

Recommendation 11

It is recommended that the Secretary-General ensure that, during the preparations for the 1974 World Population Conference, special attention shall be given to population concerns as they relate to the environment and, more particularly, to the environment of human settlements.

Recommendation 12

1. It is Recommended that the World Health Organization and other United Nations agencies should provide increased assistance to Governments which so request in the field of family planning programmes without delay.

It is further recommended that the World Health Organization should promote and intensify research endeavour in the field of human reproduction, so that the serious consequences of population explosion on human environment can be prevented.

Recommendation 13

It is Recommended that the United Nations agencies should focus special attention on the provision of assistance for combating the menace of human malnutrition rampant in many parts of the world. Such assistance will cover training, research and development endeavours on such matters as causes of malnutrition, mass production Of high-protein and multipurpose foods, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of routine foods, and the launching of applied nutrition programmes. Recommendation 14

it is Environment that the intergovernmental body for environmental affairs to be established within the United Nations should ensure that the required surveys shall be made concerning the need and the technical possibilities for developing internationally agreed standards for measuring and limiting noise emissions and that, if it is deemed advisable, such standards shall be applied in the production of means of transportation and certain kinds of working equipment, without a large price increase or reduction in the aid given to developing countries.

Recommendation 15

It is recommended that the Secretary-General, in consultation with the appropriate United Nations bodies, formulate programmes on a world-wide basis to assist countries to meet effectively the requirements of growth of human settlements and to improve the quality of life in existing settlements, in particular, in squatter areas.

The programmes referred to in recommendation 15 should include the establishment of a subregional centre to undertake, inter alia, the following functions with other international agencies concerned, strengthen the necessary machinery for the international acquisition of knowledge and transfer of experience on soil capabilities, degradation, conservation and restoration, and to this end:

(a) Cooperative information exchange should be facilitated among those nations sharing similar soils, climate and agricultural conditions;

(i) The Soil Map of the World being prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Educational, scientific and Cultural Organization and the international Society of Soil Science should serve to indicate those areas among which transfer of knowledge on soil potentialities and soil degradation and restoration would be most valuable;
(ii) This map should be supplemented through the establishment of international criteria and methods for the assessment of soil capabilities and degradations and the collection of additional data based upon these methods and criteria. This should permit the preparation of a World Map of Soil Degradation Hazards as a framework for information exchange in this area;
(iii) Information exchange on soil use should account for similarities in vegetation and other environmental conditions as well as those of soil, climate, and agricultural practices;
(iv) The FAO Soil Data-Processing System should be developed beyond soil productivity considerations, to include the above-mentioned data and relevant environmental parameters, and to facilitate information exchange between national soil institutions, and eventually soil-monitoring stations;

(b) International cooperative research on soil capabilities and conservation should be strengthened and broadened to include:

(i) Basic research on soil degradation processes in selected ecosystems under the auspices of the Man and the Biosphere Programme. This research should be directed as a matter of priority to those and areas that are most threatened;
(ii) Applied research on soil and water conservation practices under specific land-use conditions with the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and, where appropriate, other agencies (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency);
(iii)Strengthening of existing research centres and, where necessary, establishment of new centres with the object of increasing the production from dry farming areas without any undue impairment of the environment;
(iv) Research on the use of suitable soils for waste disposal and recycling; the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the World Health Organization should enter into joint consultations regarding the feasibility of an international programme in this area. These efforts for international cooperation in research and information exchange on soils should be closely associated with those of the UNDP/WMO/FAO/UNESCO programme of agricultural biometeorology, in order to facilitate integration of data and practical findings and to support the national programmes of conservation of soil resources recommended above;

(d) It should moreover be noted that in addition to the various physical and crystatic phenomena which contribute to soil degradation-economic and social factors contribute to it as well; among the economic contributor factors, one which should be particularly emphasized is the payment of inadequate prices for the agricultural produce of developing countries, which prevents farmers in those countries from setting aside sufficient savings for necessary investments in soil regeneration and conservation consequently, urgent remedial action should be taken by the organizations concerned to give new value added stability to the prices of raw materials of the developed, countries.

Recommendation 21

It is recommended that Governments, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, in cooperation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, strengthen and co-ordinate international programmes for integrated pest control and reduction of the harmful effects of agro-chemical

(a) Existing international activities for the exchange of information and cooperative research and technical assistance to developing countries should be strengthened to support the national programmes described above, with particular reference to:

(i) Basic research on ecology effects of pesticides and fertilizers (MAB);
(ii) Use of radio-isotope and radiation techniques in studying the fate of pesticides in the environment (joint IAEA/FAO Division);
(iii) Evaluation of the possibility of using pesticides of biological origin institution for certain chemical insecticides which cause serious disturbances in the environment;
(iv) Dose and timing of fertilizers' application and their effects on soil productivity and the environment (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations);
(v) Management practices and techniques for integrated pest control, including biological control (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization);
(vi) Establishment and/or stregthening of national and regional centres for integrated pest control, particularly in developing countries (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization

(b) Existing expert committees of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization on various aspects of pest control should be convened periodically:

(i) To assess recent advances in the relevant fields of research mentioned above;
(ii) To review and further develop international guidelines and standards with special reference to national and ecological conditions in relation to the use of chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides containing heavy metals, and the use and experimentation of biological controls;

(c) In addition, ad hoc panels of experts should be convened, by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization and, where appropriate, the International Atomic Energy Agency, in order to study specific problems, and facilitate the work of the above-mentioned committees.

Recommendation 22

It is recommended that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, under its "War on Waste" programme, place increased emphasis on control and recycling of wastes in agriculture:

(a) This programme should assist the national activities relating to:

(i) Control and recycling of crop residues and animal wastes;
(ii) Control and recycling of agro-industrial waste;
(iii) Use of municipal wastes as fertilizers;

(b) The programme should also include measures to avoid wasteful use of natural resources through the destruction of unmarketable agricultural products or their use for improper purposes.

Recommendation 23

It is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other agencies and bodies, establish and strengthen regional and international machinery for the rapid development and management of domesticated livestock of economic importance and their related environmental aspects as part of the ecosystems, particularly in areas of low annual productivity, and thus encourage the establishment of regional livestock research facilities, councils and commissions, as appropriate.

Recommendation 24

It is recommended that the Secretary-General take steps to ensure that the United Nations bodies concerned cooperate to meet the needs for new knowledge on the environmental aspects of forests and forest management:

(a) Where appropriate, research should be promoted, assisted, coordinated, or undertaken by the Man and the Biosphere Programme (UNESCO), in close cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization, and with the collaboration of the International Council of Scientific Unions and the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations;

(b) Research on comparative legislation, land tenure, institutions, tropical forest management, the effects of the international trade in forest products on national forest environments, and public administration, should be sponsored or coordinated by FAO, in cooperation with other appropriate international and regional organizations;

(e) The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in conjunction with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and other appropriate international organizations, should give positive advice to member countries on the important role of forests with reference to, and in conjunction with, the conservation of soil, watersheds, the protection of tourist sites and wildlife, and recreation, within the over-all framework of the interests of the biosphere.

Recommendation 25

It is recommended that the Secretary-General take steps to ensure that continuing surveillance, with the cooperation of Member States, of the world's forest cover shall be provided for through the programmes of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

(a) Such a World Forest Appraisal Programme would provide basic data, including data on the balance between the world's forest biomass and the prevailing environment, and changes in the forest biomass, considered to have a significant impact on the environment;

(b) The information could be collected from existing inventories and on-going activities and through remote sensing techniques;

(c) The forest protection programme described above might be incorporated within this effort, through the use of advanced technology, such as satellites which use different types of imagery and which could constantly survey all forests.

Recommendation 26

It is recommended that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations coordinate an international programme for research and exchange of information on forest fires, pests and diseases:

(a) The programme should include data collection and dissemination, identification of potentially susceptible areas and of means of suppression; exchange of information on technologies, equipment and techniques; research, including integrated pest control and the influence of fires on forest ecosystems, to be undertaken by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations; establishment of a forecasting system in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization; organization of seminars and study tours; the facilitation of bilateral agreements for forest protection between neighbouring countries, and the development of effective international quarantines;

(b) Forest fires, pests and diseases will frequently each require separate individual treatment.

Recommendation 27

It is recommended that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations facilitate the transfer of information on forests and forest management:

(a) The amount of knowledge that can usefully be exchanged is limited by the differences of climatic zones and forest types;

(b) The exchange of information should, however, be encouraged among nations sharing similarities; considerable knowledge is already exchanged among the industrialized nations of the temperate zone;

(c) Opportunities exist, despite differences, for the useful transfer of information to developing countries on the environmental aspects of such items as:

(i) the harvesting and industrialization of some tropical hardwoods;
(ii) pine cultures;
(iii) the principles of forest management systems and management science;
(iv) soils and soil interpretations relating to forest management;
(v) water regimes and watershed management;
(vi) forest industries pollution controls, including both technical and economic data;
(vii) methods for the evaluation of forest resources through sampling techniques, remote sensing, and data-processing;
(viii) control of destructive fires and pest outbreaks; and
(ix) coordination in the area of the definition and standardization of criteria and methods for the economic appraisal of forest environmental influences and for the comparison of alternative uses.

Recommendation 28

It is recommended that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations strengthen its efforts in support of forestry projects and research projects, possibly for production, in finding species which are adaptable even in areas where this is exceptionally difficult because of ecological conditions.

Recommendation 29

It is recommended that the Secretary-General ensure that the effect of pollutants upon wildlife shall be considered, where appropriate, within environmental monitoring systems. Particular attention should be paid to those species of wildlife that may serve as indicators for future wide environmental disturbances, and an ultimate impact upon human populations.

Recommendation 30

It is recommended that the Secretary-General ensure the establishment of a programme to expand present data-gathering processes so as to assess the total economic value of wildlife resources.

(a) Such data would facilitate the task of monitoring the current situation of animals endangered by their trade value, and demonstrate to questioning nations the value of their resources;

(b) Such a programme should elaborate upon current efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and might well produce a yearbook of wildlife statistics.

Recommendation 31

It is recommended that the Secretary-General ensure that the appropriate United Nations agencies cooperate with the Governments of the developing countries to develop special short-term training courses on wildlife management:

(a) Priority should be given to conversion courses for personnel trained in related disciplines such as forestry or animal husbandry;

(b) Special attention should be given to the establishment and support of regional training schools for technicians.

Recommendation 32

It is recommended that Governments give attention to the need to enact international conventions and treaties to protect species inhabiting international waters or those which migrate from one country to another:

(a) A broadly-based convention should be considered which would provide a framework by which criteria for some regulations could be agreed upon and the over-exploitation of resources curtailed by signatory countries;

(b) A working group should be set up as soon as Possible by the appropriate authorities to consider these problems and to advise on the need for, and possible scope of, such conventions or treaties.

Recommendation 33

It is recommended that Governments agree to strengthen the International Whaling Commission, to increase international research efforts, and as a matter of urgency to call for an international agreement, under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission and involving all Governments concerned, for a 10-year moratorium on commercial whaling.

Recommendation 34

It is recommended that Governments and the Secretary-General give special attention to training requirements ill the management of parks and protected areas:

(a) High-level training should be provided and supported:
(i) In addition to integration - aspects of national parks planning and management into courses on forestry and other subjects, special degrees should be offered in park management; the traditional forestry, soil and geology background of the park manager must be broadened into an integrated approach;
(ii) Graduate courses in natural resources administration should be made available in at least one major university in every continent;

2 Whereas elsewhere in this report the expression "wildlife" is meant to include both animals and plants, it should be understood here to be restricted to the most important animals.

(b) Schools offering courses in national park management at a medium-grade level should be assisted by the establishment or expansion of facilities, particularly in Latin America and Asia.

Recommendation 35

It is recommended that the Secretary-General take steps to ensure that an appropriate mechanism shall exist for the exchange of information on national parks legislation and planning and management techniques developed in some countries which could serve as guidelines to be made available to any interested country.

Recommendation 36

It is recommended that the Secretary-General take steps to ensure that the appropriate United Nations agencies shall assist the developing countries to plan for the inflow of visitors into their protected areas in such a way as to reconcile revenue and environmental considerations within the context of the recommendations approved by the Conference. The other international organizations concerned may likewise make their contribution.

Recommendation 37

It is recommended that Governments take steps to coordinate, and cooperate in the management of, neighbouring or contiguous protected areas. Agreement should be reached on such aspects as mutual legislation, patrolling systems, exchange of information, research project, collaboration on measures of burning, plant and animal control, fishery regulations, censuses, tourist circuits and frontier formalities.

Recommendation 38

It is recommended that Governments take steps to set aside areas representing ecosystems of international significance for protection under international agreement.

Recommendation 39

It is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations where indicated, agree to an international programme to preserve the world's genetic resources:

(a) Active participation at the national and international levels is involved. It must be recognized, however, that while survey, collection, and dissemination of these genetic resources are best carried out on a regional or international basis, their actual evaluation and utilization are matters for specific institutions and individual workers; international participation in the latter should concern exchange of techniques and findings;

(b) An international network is required with appropriate machinery to facilitate the interchange of information and genetic material among countries;

(c) Both static (seed banks, culture collection etc.) and dynamic (conservation of populations in evolving natural environments) ways are needed.

(d) Action is necessary in six interrelated areas:

(i) Survey of genetic resources;
(ii) Inventory of collections;
(iii) Exploration and collecting;
(iv) Documentation;
(v) Evaluation and utilization;
(vi) Conservation, which represents the crucial element to which all other programmes relate;

(e) Although the international programme relates to all types of genetic resources, the action required for each resource will vary according to existing needs and activities.

Recommendation 40

It is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations where indicated, make inventories of the genetic resources most endangered by depletion or extinction:

(a) All species threatened by man's development should be included in such inventories;

(b) Special attention should be given to locating in this field those areas of natural genetic diversity that are disappearing;

(c) These inventories should be reviewed periodically and brought up to date by appropriate monitoring;

(d) The survey conducted by FAO in collaboration with the International Biological Programme is designed to provide information on endangered crop genetic resources by 1972, but will require extension and follow-up.

Recommendation 41

It is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations where indicated, compile or extend, as necessary, registers of existing collections of genetic resources:

(a) Such registers should identify which breeding and experiment stations, research institutions and Universities maintain which collections;

(b) Major gaps in existing collections should be identified where material is in danger of being lost;

(c) These inventories of collections should be transformed for computer handling and made available to all potential users;

(d) In respect of plants:

(i) It would be expected that the "advanced varieties" would be well represented, but that primitive materials would be found to be scarce and require subsequent action;
(ii) The action already initiated by FAO, several national institutions, and international foundations should be supported and expanded.

(e) In respect of micro-organisms, it is recommended that each nation develop comprehensive inventories of culture collections:

(i) A cataloguing of the large and small collections and the value of their holdings is required, rather than a listing of individual strains;
(ii) Many very small but unique collections, sometimes the works of a single specialist, are lost;
(iii) Governments should make sure that valuable gene pools held by individuals or small institutes are also held in national or regional collections.

In respect of animal germ plasm, it is recommended that FAO establish a continuing mechanism to assess and maintain catalogues of the characteristics of domestic animal breeds, types and varieties in all nations of the world. Likewise, FAO should establish such lists where required.

(g) In respect of aquatic organisms, it is recommended that FAO compile a catalogue of genetic resources of cultivated species and promote intensive studies on the methods of preservation and storage of genetic material.

Recommendation 42

It is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations where indicated, initiate immediately, in cooperation with all interested parties, programmes of exploration and collection wherever endangered species have been identified which are not included in existing collections:

(a) An emergency programme, with the cooperation of the Man and the Biosphere Programme, of plant exploration and collection should be launched on the basis of the FAO List of Emergency Situations for a five-year period;

(b) With regard to forestry species, in addition to the efforts of the Danish/FAO Forest Tree Seed Centre, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, and the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources, support is needed for missions planned for Latin America West Africa, the East Indies and India. Recommendation 43

it is recommended that Governments, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations where indicated:

1. Recognize that conservation is a most crucial part of any genetic resources programme. Moreover, major types of genetic resources must be treated separately because:

(a) They are each subject to different programmes and priorities;

(b) They serve different uses and purposes;

(c) They require different expertise, techniques and facilities;

2. In respect of plant germ plasmas (agriculture and forestry), organize and equip national or regional genetic resources conservation centres:

(a) Such centres as the National Seed Storage Laboratory in the United States of America and the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics already provide good examples;

(b) Working collections should be established separately from the basic collections; these will usually be located at plant and breeding stations and will be widely distributed;

(c) Three classes of genetic crop resources must be conserved:
(i) High-producing varieties in current use and those they have superseded;
(ii) Primitive varieties of traditional pre-scientific agriculture (recognized as genetic treasuries for plan improvement);
(iii) Mutations induced by radiation or chemical means;

(d) Species contributing to environmental improvement, such as sedge used to stabilize sand dunes, should be conserved;

(e) Wild or weed relatives of crop species and those wild species of actual or potential use of rangelands, industry, new crops etc. should be included;

3. In respect of plant germ plasmas (agriculture and forestry), maintain gene pools of wild-plant species within their natural communities. Therefore:

(a) It is essential that primeval forests, bushlands and grasslands which contain important forest genetic resources be identified and protected by appropriate technical and legal means; systems of reserves exist in most countries, but a strengthening of international understanding on methods of protection and on availability of material may be desired;

(b) Conservation of species of medical, aesthetic or research value should be assured;

(C) The network of biological reserves proposed by UNESCO (Man and the Biosphere Programme) should be designed, where feasible, to protect these natural communities;

(d) Where protection in nature becomes uncertain or impossible, then means such as seed storage or living collections in provenance trials or botanic gardens must be adopted;

4. Fully implement the programmes initiated by the FAO Panels of Experts on forest gene resources in 1968 and on plant exploration and introduction in 1970;

5. In respect of animal germ plasmas, consider the desirability and feasibility of international action to preserve breeds or varieties of animals:

(a) Because such an endeavour would constitute a major effort beyond the scope of any one nation, FAO would be the logical executor of such a project. Close cooperation with Governments would be necessary, however. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources might, logically, be given responsibility for wild species, in cooperation with FAO, the Man and the Biosphere Programme (UNESCO), and Governments;

(b) Any such effort should also include research on methods of preserving, storing, and transporting germ plasm;

(c) Specific methods for the maintenance of gene pools of aquatic species should be developed;

(d) The recommendations of the FAO Working Party Meeting on Genetic Selection and Conservation of Genetic Resources of Fish, held in 1971, should be implemented;

6. In respect of micro-organism germ plasmas, cooperatively establish and properly fund a few large regional collections: gc1972.htm